Over the years of independence, Kazakhstan has achieved some progress in the implementation of gender policies, in the field of the protection of the rights and legitimate interests of women.
During this period, Kazakhstan joined and ratified a number of fundamental and international treaties relating to the status and rights of women. A holistic institutional system in gender and family-demographic politics has been formed, a serious legal framework has been created.
In 2009, the Republic of Kazakhstan adopted a law “On state guarantees of equal rights and equal opportunities for men and women.”
Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated December 6, 2016 No. 384 approved the Concept of Family and Gender Policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2030.
The concept of the state gender policy is to achieve parity rights, benefits, duties and possibilities of men and women in all spheres of life of society, overcoming all forms and manifestations of sexual discrimination.
To implement the goal for state gender policy, specific tasks and target indicators are identified.
The implementation of the Concept approved the plan of measures for the implementation of family and gender policies in the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2030.
According to the report of the Global Gender Gap Report 2020 of the World Economic Forum, where the degree of existing gender break is measured, Kazakhstan occupies 72nd place from 153. The gender gap index in the world will be determined by four main indicators: economic participation and career opportunities, education, health and political rights.
In the economic participation and career capabilities of women, Kazakhstan occupies 37th place in the world from 153, while Belarus is in the 5th place among EAEEC countries, and Russia is 32nd. Armenia (78th place) and Kyrgyzstan (88th place) are located lower than Kazakhstan.
The gap in wages of men and women in Kazakhstan reaches 32.2%. In 2020, among the occupied population, the number of women amounted to 4.2 million people, or 48.2%. The unemployment rate was 4.9%, among men – 4.4%, among women – 5.4%, respectively.
State support to ensure wide access to financial resources, the development of women’s business as a whole, is carried out through the State Program for the Support and Development of Business Road Map of Business – 2020, as well as through various programs of international financial institutions and the Damu Entrepreneurship Development Fund.
Kazakhstan women are actively involved in trade unions. The total number of women in the trade unions is 52.5%, of which 17.3% of women are headed by sectoral trade unions, 23.5% tops, in the collegial bodies of the FTURK women account for 26% in the General Council and 47% in the Executive Committee.
Labour unions achieve their goals by collective negotiations of practical guarantees of equality of women and men through collective treaties and agreements. In recent years, the practice of conducting labour union competitions for women, forums, competitions of professional skills and scientific and practical conferences on gender policy has been widely disseminated .
Women in the system of the Federation of Labour Unions of the Republic of Kazakhstan
|number of women||1 077 894||1 074 777||1 099 225||1099 225||956 535||860 345|
The main goal of the labour union gender policy is the desire to draw the attention of public authorities and the public to the working women’s position, to develop recommendations for further improvement of the conditions for women’s labor, the elimination of all forms of discrimination in the field of payment, protection and safety of labor, in various areas of economic and social activities of women. Currently, professional unions are held a certain job aimed at fulfilling decisions of leading labour union bodies to ensure gender equality, protecting the rights and legitimate interests of women members of labour unions, their active inclusion in socio-political processes.
The arrangements, aimed at ensuring equal rights and opportunities for women and men, the protection of motherhood and childhood, social support for women, the decision of gender problems in the field of socio-labor relations; equal support for men and female care for children and their upbringing; equality in the payment of women and men; increasing the participation of women carrying management functions, have been laid for the implementation of the concept of family and gender policies until 2030 in the General Agreement between the Government, the republican associations of employees and the republican associations of employers at 2021-2023.
The legislative activities of the Commission of the Federation of Labour Unions are actively involved in the discussion of draft regulatory legal acts regarding the rights and freedoms of men and women.
With the direct participation of representatives of the labour union federation, the ILO No. 183 “On the Protection of Motherhood”, No. 156 “On Equal Treatment and Equal Opportunities for Workers of Men and Women” were ratified.
The joint efforts of social partners managed to achieve certain positive results in matters of social equality of men and women. In recent years, the awareness of labour unions and society as a whole on gender issues has been increased. They are reflected in national legislation, collective treaties and agreements. The representation of women in leading labour union organizations as well as their presence as part of the personnel reserve increases. The influence of women in the international labour union movement is growing.
Representatives of the FTURK are actively involved in the events of the Women committee of International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), which represents a major breakthrough at the international level in the protection of working women’s rights and interests.
Also, the Federation of Labour Unions works closely with the UN-Women’s structure in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Issues regarding the integrated execution of international obligations to achieve equality of women and men, the expansion of the social, economic and political rights and the possibilities of women under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women are discussed as a part of the cooperation.
Annually, women labour union leaders take part in the forum of women of Kazakhstan, in international conferences and seminars.
It is necessary to note the greater and multifaceted work of primary labour union organizations.
In their activities, labour unions seek for practical guarantees on equality of women and men through collective agreements and negotiations.
The work of labour unions is aimed at maintaining a reasonable balance between family and work, raising women’s awareness of their rights and opportunities for career growth, vocational training.
The practice of conducting labour union competitions for women, forums, competitions of professional skills and scientific and practical conferences on gender policy has been proliferated in recent years.. One of the main goals of the events was the training and identification of leadership qualities, the creation of opportunities for personal development and professional growth, the involvement of members of women’s structures in the activities of labour union organizations.